A less used term, the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms represents this turbulent era from 304 to 439.
Almost all rulers of the kingdoms were part of the Wu Hu ethnicity and claimed to be the emperors and s . The Han Chinese founded the four states: Northern Yan, Western Liang, Former Liang and the . Six Chinese rulers of the Former Liang remained titularly under the government of the Jin Dynasty. The Northern Wei Dynasty is not counted as one of the Sixteen Kingdoms even though it was founded during the Period.
Rulers of each of the Kingdoms are listed in relevant articles.